INTRODUCTIONFluid-bed drying is a commonly-used process in the pharmaceutical industry due to its high/y efficient drying of granulated materials obtained by wet granulation (High Shear MIC)
The drying of granulated materials is achieved through a combination Of moisture diffusion from the solid material to the heated air stream and the removal Of that moisture by forced-air convection.
PROCESS CONCEPTThe ESS/CCA dryer uses control systems, influenced by specific drying programs, which eliminates problems related to the interaction of solid particles with a gas that are typified by:
- The formation of air channels within the granulated mass
- The lack of uniformity in the drying process
- Localized overheating of the granulation in some parts of the bed attrition of the granulation as it dries
DRYING PROGRAMESSICCA is equipped with software that allows diferent drying programs to be selected depending on the nature of the material being dried.
Examples Of possible drying programs include:
- Constant air flow and product temperature
- Using progressive air flow that changes with time
- Using immediate fluidization
- Using controlled fluidization determined by temperature gradient
ESSICCA can measure 7 (seven) parameters at the same time during the process:
- In/ct air temperatura: Ti
- Temperature ofthe air in contact with granulated material: Tp
- Exhaust air temperature: Te
- Pressure within the expansion chamber: Pce
- Pressure in the plenum.. Pp
- Pressure at the exhaust.. Pe
- Air flow: Q
Measurements are constantly processed by means of a PLC which provides information based on the selected drying program.
DRYER FEATURESProcess outputs from ESSICCA:
- Drying Kinetics
- Drying END POINT
- Drying Time and Efficiency
- Effect of air now on the characteñstics of the granulated material
-The air enters the dryer to a determined temperature, goes through the bed of granulated materials and goes out the dryer at lower temperature and higher humidity.
-Temperature and pressure sensors monitor the changes during the whole process.
ESSICCA is a fluid bed dryer which includes two new practica/ concepts of a great importance:
1- Optimization of the drying process Unlike conventional fluid-bed dryers, which only allow drying air flow and temperature to be fixed, ESSICCA facilitates optimization of the drying process through application of specific drying programs as follows:
– Avoid the formation of air channels through the product bed which can extend the process time and affect the quality of the final product.
– Avoid localized overheating of granulated product that could ultimately affect product stability.
– Yield uniform product moisture content at the end of the process, thus avoiding problems in subsequent manufacturing processes, such as sticking of materials to punch faces during tabletting.
– Minimize attrition of the granulated product.
2- Automation of drying process which means:
– Makes the drying process independent of the operator through application of predefined recipes.
– Automatically determines the end point of the drying process, ensuring that the moisture content of the final product meets required levels without the need to assay intermediate in-process samples.
Each drying test was conducted using a placebo granulation consisting ofAvicel PHIOI and Lactose (70:30) using different concentrations of PVP K30 as binder.
Granulation was carried Out in a MIC high-shear mixer-granulator using different quantities of water as the granulation solvent.
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